neurosciencestuff:

New Device Allows Brain To Bypass Spinal Cord, Move Paralyzed Limbs

For the first time ever, a paralyzed man can move his fingers and hand with his own thoughts thanks to an innovative partnership between The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center and Battelle.

Ian Burkhart, a 23-year-old quadriplegic from Dublin, Ohio, is the first patient to use Neurobridge, an electronic neural bypass for spinal cord injuries that reconnects the brain directly to muscles, allowing voluntary and functional control of a paralyzed limb. Burkhart is the first of a potential five participants in a clinical study.

“It’s much like a heart bypass, but instead of bypassing blood, we’re actually bypassing electrical signals,” said Chad Bouton, research leader at Battelle. “We’re taking those signals from the brain, going around the injury, and actually going directly to the muscles.”

The Neurobridge technology combines algorithms that learn and decode the user’s brain activity and a high-definition muscle stimulation sleeve that translates neural impulses from the brain and transmits new signals to the paralyzed limb. In this case, Ian’s brain signals bypass his injured spinal cord and move his hand, hence the name Neurobridge.

Burkhart, who was paralyzed four years ago during a diving accident, viewed the opportunity to participate in the six-month, FDA-approved clinical trial at Ohio State’s Wexner Medical Center as a chance to help others with spinal cord injuries.

“Initially, it piqued my interested because I like science, and it’s pretty interesting,” Burkhart said. “I’ve realized, ‘You know what? This is the way it is. You’re going to have to make the best out of it.’ You can sit and complain about it, but that’s not going to help you at all. So, you might as well work hard, do what you can and keep going on with life.” 

This technology has been a long time in the making. Working on the internally-funded project for nearly a decade to develop the algorithms, software and stimulation sleeve, Battelle scientists first recorded neural impulses from an electrode array implanted in a paralyzed person’s brain. They used that data to illustrate the device’s effect on the patient and prove the concept.

Two years ago, Bouton and his team began collaborating with Ohio State neuroscience researchers and clinicians Dr. Ali Rezai and Dr. Jerry Mysiw to design the clinical trials and validate the feasibility of using the Neurobridge technology in patients.

During a three-hour surgery on April 22, Rezai implanted a chip smaller than a pea onto the motor cortex of Burkhart’s brain. The tiny chip interprets brain signals and sends them to a computer, which recodes and sends them to the high-definition electrode stimulation sleeve that stimulates the proper muscles to execute his desired movements. Within a tenth of a second, Burkhart’s thoughts are translated into action.

“The surgery required the precise implantation of the micro-chip sensor in the area of Ian’s brain that controls his arm and hand movements,” Rezai said. 

He said this technology may one day help patients affected by various brain and spinal cord injuries such as strokes and traumatic brain injury.

Battelle also developed a non-invasive neurostimulation technology in the form of a wearable sleeve that allows for precise activation of small muscle segments in the arm to enable individual finger movement, along with software that forms a ‘virtual spinal cord’ to allow for coordination of dynamic hand and wrist movements.

The Ohio State and Battelle teams worked together to figure out the correct sequence of electrodes to stimulate to allow Burkhart to move his fingers and hand functionally. For example, Burkhart uses different brain signals and muscles to rotate his hand, make a fist or pinch his fingers together to grasp an object, Mysiw said. As part of the study, Burkhart worked for months using the electrode sleeve to stimulate his forearm to rebuild his atrophied muscles so they would be more responsive to the electric stimulation.

“I’ve been doing rehabilitation for a lot of years, and this is a tremendous stride forward in what we can offer these people,” said Mysiw, chair of the Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation at Ohio State. “Now we’re examining human-machine interfaces and interactions, and how that type of technology can help.”  

Burkhart is hopeful for his future.

“It’s definitely great for me to be as young as I am when I was injured because the advancements in science and technology are growing rapidly and they’re only going to continue to increase.”

@1 month ago with 3672 notes
The Lady is not Returning. 

The Lady is not Returning. 

(Source: teespring.com)

@1 year ago with 1 note

jtotheizzoe:

staceythinx:

Beautifully atmospheric photography by Adnan Bubalo

Great googly moogly … if we ever find another inhabited planet there’s just no chance it will be as pretty as this one.

Ok, that first part’s not precisely true, but you know what I mean.

Look at all that gorgeous Rayleigh scattering and atmospheric refraction!Earth, you damn fine.

*look at all that photoshop

(via analgesicrhymes)

@1 year ago with 6399 notes

noellejt:

Pan troglodytes. Damaged proximal epiphyses - radius and tibia.

I absolutely adore my new camera. I’ve never really tried taking close-ups of small objects (I’m more landscapes and portraits) but I tried with it (and it’s amazing magical touch-screen focus thing) and these pictures somehow happened.

(via theolduvaigorge)

@1 year ago with 20 notes
oldowan:

jhellden:

Age estimation from teeth
Eruption of deciduous (baby or milk) teeth and permanent (adult) teeth occurs at fairly regular intervals during the subadult years of development (see the figure above, deciduous teeth are shaded). Therefore, age estimation of subadults based dental eruption is quite accurate.
While tooth wear and permanent tooth loss can occur in subadults, these degenerative changes are usually associated with adults. Loss of permanent teeth and accompanying bone resorption of the alveolar bone of the maxilla and/or mandible are often associated with old age. Tooth wear or dental attrition most often occurs in adults, but the age of onset depends on diet and other environmental factors. This process leads to loss of outer white tooth enamel and exposure of the yellowish dentine of the pulp cavity, especially on the cusps of the teeth. The older an individual is, the more dentine is exposed due to tooth wear.
Image is scanned from Tim D. White, Michael T. Black & Pieter A. Folkens: Human Osteology, Academic Press, 3 ed. (2011)

I need to expand on this topic.

oldowan:

jhellden:

Age estimation from teeth

Eruption of deciduous (baby or milk) teeth and permanent (adult) teeth occurs at fairly regular intervals during the subadult years of development (see the figure above, deciduous teeth are shaded). Therefore, age estimation of subadults based dental eruption is quite accurate.

While tooth wear and permanent tooth loss can occur in subadults, these degenerative changes are usually associated with adults. Loss of permanent teeth and accompanying bone resorption of the alveolar bone of the maxilla and/or mandible are often associated with old age. Tooth wear or dental attrition most often occurs in adults, but the age of onset depends on diet and other environmental factors. This process leads to loss of outer white tooth enamel and exposure of the yellowish dentine of the pulp cavity, especially on the cusps of the teeth. The older an individual is, the more dentine is exposed due to tooth wear.

Image is scanned from Tim D. White, Michael T. Black & Pieter A. Folkens: Human Osteology, Academic Press, 3 ed. (2011)

I need to expand on this topic.

(via theolduvaigorge)

@1 year ago with 192 notes

(Source: moshita, via ewok-gia)

@1 year ago with 3531 notes
#anatomy 
timeisenough:

An A4 picture I drew. As of yet unfinished. Any feedback greatly appreciated.

timeisenough:

An A4 picture I drew. As of yet unfinished. Any feedback greatly appreciated.

@1 year ago with 11 notes

(Source: thoughtsanddreams)

@1 year ago with 133 notes
Anatomy shirt available at http://teespring.com/anatomy

Anatomy shirt available at http://teespring.com/anatomy

@1 year ago with 37 notes
#http://teespring.com/anatomy 

Hahaha 

Definitely getting one of these.

@1 year ago

(Source: , via mindpotential)

@1 year ago with 92 notes
fuckyeahforensics:

Accuracy of High-Resolution In Vivo Micro Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Measurements of Microstructural and Mechanical Properties of Human Distal Tibial Bone, Liu XS, Zhang XH, Rajapakse CS, Wald MJ, Magland J, Sekhon KK, Adam MF, Sajda P, Wehrli FW, and Guo XE, Journal of Bone Mineral Research,25(9): 2039-50, 2010 Micro magnetic resonance imaging (µMRI) is an in vivo imaging method that permits 3D quantification of cortical and trabecular bone microstructure. µMR images can also be used for building microstructural finite element (µFE) models to assess bone stiffness, which highly correlates with bone’s resistance to fractures. In order for µMRI-based microstructural and µFE analyses to become standard clinical tools for assessing bone quality, validation with a current gold standard, namely, high-resolution micro computed tomography (µCT) was performed by obtaining microstructural measurements of 25 human cadaveric distal tibias for the registered µMR (Figure Bottom Row) and µCT images (Figure Top Row), respectively. We conclude that most microstructural and mechanical properties of the distal tibia can be derived efficiently from µMR images and can provide additional information regarding bone quality.

fuckyeahforensics:

Accuracy of High-Resolution In Vivo Micro Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Measurements of Microstructural and Mechanical Properties of Human Distal Tibial Bone, Liu XS, Zhang XH, Rajapakse CS, Wald MJ, Magland J, Sekhon KK, Adam MF, Sajda P, Wehrli FW, and Guo XE, Journal of Bone Mineral Research,25(9): 2039-50, 2010
Micro magnetic resonance imaging (µMRI) is an in vivo imaging method that permits 3D quantification of cortical and trabecular bone microstructure. µMR images can also be used for building microstructural finite element (µFE) models to assess bone stiffness, which highly correlates with bone’s resistance to fractures. In order for µMRI-based microstructural and µFE analyses to become standard clinical tools for assessing bone quality, validation with a current gold standard, namely, high-resolution micro computed tomography (µCT) was performed by obtaining microstructural measurements of 25 human cadaveric distal tibias for the registered µMR (Figure Bottom Row) and µCT images (Figure Top Row), respectively. We conclude that most microstructural and mechanical properties of the distal tibia can be derived efficiently from µMR images and can provide additional information regarding bone quality.

(via theolduvaigorge)

@1 year ago with 7 notes
malformalady:

Congenital ectropion uveae is a rare, nonprogressive anomaly characterized by the presence of iris pigment epithelium on the anterior surface of the iris

malformalady:

Congenital ectropion uveae is a rare, nonprogressive anomaly characterized by the presence of iris pigment epithelium on the anterior surface of the iris

(via little-sincerity)

@1 year ago with 506 notes

expose-the-light:

Layered MRI Self-Portraits Engraved in Glass Sheets by Angela Palmer

@1 year ago with 12388 notes
timeisenough:

This one is A5 (I think? It’s less than half the size of A4). Its faded as I did it a while ago. Thinking of colouring it. Would love feedback as everyone does.

timeisenough:

This one is A5 (I think? It’s less than half the size of A4). Its faded as I did it a while ago. Thinking of colouring it. Would love feedback as everyone does.

@1 year ago with 7 notes